SoilWaterManagement.jpg ​Land (soil) and water are the basic natural resources, which support life in all forms.  These two important resources are threatened by climate variability that is considered as the major driving force to both land degradation and the scarcity of water.  Climate variability includes changing in rainfall patterns, increased frequency and intensity of draught and floods, rising temperatures as well as profound ecological shifts.  The interaction between land degradation and climate variability is hugely affecting arid and semi-arid region, since these regions are more susceptible to higher temperatures coupled with limited rainfall.  Desertification is the major problem that these areas are experiencing and is because of climate and land degradation induced changes.  Climate induced changes include changes in air temperature and moisture, while land degradation induced changes includes reduction in soil organic matter, above and below ground biomass and soil fertility.  However, the occurrence of extreme weather conditions such as extreme drought or heavy rainfall can accelerate wind and water erosion that will contribute hugely towards biomass and physical and chemical degradation of the land.  

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