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Skip Navigation LinksDRAFT QUESTIONNAIRE - The Development of Economic and Sustainability Framework for Citrus Resource-Poor Farmers in South Africa

   
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1. 1. Please indicate your age in complete

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

2. 2. Indicate your province

 Limpopo
 (100%)  
 Gauteng
 (0%)  
 North West
 (0%)  
 Western Cape
 (0%)  
 Mpumalanga
 (0%)  
 Eastern Cape
 (0%)  
 Free State
 (0%)  
 Northern Cape
 (0%)  
 Kwazulu-Natal
 (0%)  

Total: 1

3. 3. Please indicate your gender

 Male
 (0%)  
 Female
 (100%)  

Total: 1

4. Kindly indicate your marital status


Total: 0

5. How many people are in your household?


Total: 0

6. 4. Indicate your educational achievements?

 No education
 (0%)  
 Grade 12
 (100%)  
 Diploma
 (0%)  
 Degree
 (0%)  
 Honours
 (0%)  
 Masters
 (0%)  
 Doctorate
 (0%)  

Total: 1

7. 5. Indicate your business experience (in years)?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

8. 6. Indicate your experience in farming in general (in years)?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

9. 7. How long have you been involved in citrus farming (in years)?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

10. 8. May you be kind to tell us the name of your farm?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

11. 9. What is the size of your farm in hectares?

 TEST
 (100%)  

Total: 1

12. 10. What are your objectives for participating in citrus production?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

13. 11. How was your farm accessed?

 Land Reform
 (0%)  
 Land Bank
 (100%)  
 PTO
 (0%)  
 Rental
 (0%)  
 Other
 (0%)  

Total: 1

14. 12. What is nearest town from your farm?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

15. 13. What type of soils are found on the farm?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

16. 14. What is the amount of annual rainfall in your area?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

17. 15. Indicate which one/ones among the below listed citrus commodities or species is planted on your farm.

 Orange
 (100%)  
 Soft Citrus (Naartjie)
 (0%)  
 Grapefruit
 (0%)  
 Lemon
 (0%)  

Total: 1

18. 16. Please write the number of hectares for orange, soft citrus (naartjie), grapefruit and lemon separately in the space below.

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

19. 17. Select the names of orange cultivars, currently cultivated on your farm.

 Palmer
 (0%)  
 Navelina
 (0%)  
 Bahianinha
 (0%)  
 Washinton
 (0%)  
 Cara Cara
 (0%)  
 Witkrans
 (0%)  
 Lane late
 (0%)  
 PEN (EXP)
 (0%)  
 Fukumoto
 (0%)  
 Limpopo SL
 (0%)  
 Tambuti Early
 (0%)  
 Olinda
 (0%)  
 DuRoi
 (0%)  
 Midknight
 (0%)  
 Mouton Early
 (0%)  
 Delta
 (100%)  
 Ruby
 (0%)  
 Other
 (0%)  

Total: 1

20. 18. How many farm sections do you have on oranges?

 1
 (0%)  
 2
 (100%)  
 3
 (0%)  
 4
 (0%)  
 5
 (0%)  

Total: 1

21. 19. Indicate the planting densities only for the orange trees planted in your farm sections.

 100-300
 (100%)  
 301-500
 (0%)  
 501-700
 (0%)  
 701-1000
 (0%)  
 >1000
 (0%)  

Total: 1

22. 20. Indicate the age only for the orange trees planted in your farm sections.

 1-3 years
 (100%)  
 4-10 years
 (0%)  
 11-25 years
 (0%)  
 >25 years
 (0%)  

Total: 1

23. 21. Select the names of the rootstock unto which orange cultivars are grafted or planted.

 Carrizo citrange
 (0%)  
 Swingle citrumelo
 (0%)  
 Rough Lemon
 (0%)  
 Troyer cintrange
 (0%)  
 Volcka-meriana
 (0%)  
 X639 Hybrid
 (0%)  
 Poncirus trifoliate
 (0%)  
 Cleopatra mandarin
 (100%)  
 Other
 (0%)  

Total: 1

24. 22. Do you have an irrigation system on the farm?

 Yes
 (100%)  
 No
 (0%)  

Total: 1

25. 23. What is the source of the water for irrigation?

 Borehole
 (0%)  
 River
 (100%)  
 Natural dam
 (0%)  
 Municipal irrigation canal/irrigation scheme
 (0%)  
 Other
 (0%)  

Total: 1

26. 24. Did you make profit In the past three years?

 Yes
 (100%)  
 No
 (0%)  

Total: 1

27. 25. In case the answer is no, please provide an explanation?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

28. 26. Indicate the yield/ha in the past three years?

  
15-25 tons
26-40 tons
>40 tons
(%)01000
2016
      
 123
(%)01000
2017
      
 123
(%)01000
2018
      
123

Total: 1

29. 27. Indicate the cost of production/ha in the past three years?

  
R40000-R70000
R71000-R100000
>R100 000
(%)00100
2016
      
 123
(%)00100
2017
      
 123
(%)00100
2018
      
123

Total: 1

30. 28. Indicate the income in Rand/ha in the past three years?

  
R40000-R60000/ha
R61000-R80000/ha
>R80000/ha
(%)10000
2016
      
 123
(%)01000
2017
      
 123
(%)00100
2018
      
123

Total: 1

31. 29. Indicate the profit as percentage of production cost/ha in the past three years?

  
5-10%
11-20%
>20%
(%)00100
2016
      
 123
(%)00100
2017
      
 123
(%)00100
2018
      
123

Total: 1

32. 30. Using your own experience, rate important factors contributing most to capital cost.

  
Not important
Important
Extremely important
(%)000100000
1. Land contributes most?
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
2. Establishing irrigation system?
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
3. Buying fertilizer and chemicals?
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
4. Farm-labour contribute most?
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
5. Irrigation contributes most?
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
6. Tractors and implements?
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
7. Interest charged on loans?
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
8. Electricity and fuel
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
9. Marketing cost
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
10. HR & Administration
              
 1234567
(%)000100000
11. Other factors
              
1234567

Total: 1

33. 31. Evaluate on scale of 1-7 the factors that are important towards achieving high yields.

  
Not important
Important
Extrememly important
(%)001000000
1. Selection of high yielding cultivar?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
2. Selection of a suitable rootstock?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
3. Good planting density?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
4. Fertilizer Application?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
5. Constant irrigation of citrus trees?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
6. Practice of Conservation Agriculture?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
7. Replacing of old trees?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
8. Other factors
              
1234567

Total: 1

34. 32. Rate the importance of the following factors in terms of building social capital and transfer of skills to farmer

  
Not important
Important
Extremely important
(%)001000000
1. Constant visits by public extension officers?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
2. Constant visits by private-sector extension officers?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
3. Being a member of a farmer-association or a commodity group?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
4. Belonging to share-equity scheme?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
5. Access to cellphone and internet?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
6. Receiving training on business management and book-keeping?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
7. Being connected to government officials or politicians?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
8. Other factors
              
1234567

Total: 1

35. 33. Indicate how much each of the markets receive for your produce?

  
0-30%
31-60%
61-100%
(%)00100
Local National Fresh Produce markets
      
 123
(%)00100
Export markets
      
 123
(%)00100
Retail supermarkets (e.g. Spar)
      
 123
(%)00100
Juice processing firms
      
 123
(%)00100
Informal markets
      
 123
(%)00100
Other
      
123

Total: 1

36. 34. Rate the importance of the following factors on their contribution towards profitability.

  
Not important
Important
Extremely important
(%)001000000
1. Employing few labourers per ha?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
2. Buying farm inputs in large quantities and getting a discount?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
3. Adopting high-yielding citrus trees?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
4. Selling produce at a premium price?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
5. Selling to export markets?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
7. Supplying citrus during out-of-season
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
8. Using less electricity & less fuel?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
9. Renting a farm and not buying one?
              
 1234567
(%)001000000
10. Other factors
              
1234567

Total: 1

37. 35. Had you ever heard about the concept of sustainable agricultural practices?

 Yes
 (100%)  
 No
 (0%)  

Total: 1

38. 36. Please explain to us your understanding of the concept of sustainable agricultural practices?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

39. 37. Select the status of sustainable practices on your farm.

  
At all times
Sometimes
Never
(%)01000
1. To sustain soil fertility I use compost as fertilizer?
      
 123
(%)01000
2. In order to attain high yields I apply industrial fertilizer?
      
 123
(%)01000
3. In order to control insects I apply insecticides?
      
 123
(%)00100
4. To control insects I use natural agents or natural enemies?
      
 123
(%)00100
5. In order to retain soil moisture I apply mulching
      
 123
(%)00100
6. In order to control diseases I apply fungicide
      
 123
(%)10000
7. In order to enhance soil fertility I do intercropping
      
 123
(%)10000
8. To save cost I use more machinery and less labour
      
 123
(%)10000
9. For effective irrigation I use sprinkler and flood irrigation
      
 123
(%)01000
10. To ensure water-use-efficiency I use drip irrigation
      
 123
(%)01000
11. To save on electricity I use solar energy and gas
      
 123
(%)01000
12. To save the cost of diesel I use ethanol and/or biodiesel
      
123

Total: 1

40. 38. Select which one of the below listed attributes, since you’ve started farming, have increased, decreased or remained the same.

  
Increased
Decreased
Remained the same
(%)10000
Yield
      
 123
(%)10000
No of Labour per ha
      
 123
(%)10000
Income per ha
      
 123
(%)10000
No. of ha under citrus
      
 123
(%)10000
Volumes of exports
      
 123
(%)10000
Farm owners
      
 123
(%)10000
Savings in the bank
      
 123
(%)10000
Land under irrigation
      
 123
(%)10000
Fruit/tree diseases
      
123

Total: 1

41. 39. Where the attribute had remained the same or decreased please provide reasons.

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

42. 41. Indicate if you are worried that in the next 20 years, the below situations might happen in your citrus enterprise.

  
Yes
Possible
No
(%)01000
1. Levels of yield might decrease
      
 123
(%)01000
2. No longer have enough irrigation water
      
 123
(%)01000
3. No longer be able to secure more suitable land for citrus
      
 123
(%)01000
4. Citrus diseases might cause the business to collapse
      
 123
(%)01000
5. Too much fertilizer may damage soil fertility
      
 123
(%)00100
6. Too much application of insecticides might kill important living organisms
      
 123
(%)00100
7. Not able to secure good quality trees or cultivars
      
 123
(%)00100
8. No one to take over if you pass-on
      
 123
(%)00100
9. Too high levels of debt
      
 123
(%)00100
10. No longer realize profit
      
 123
(%)00100
11. Cannot afford to hire more labour anymore
      
 123
(%)00100
12. That oligopolistic behavior of big citrus firms might render your business not able to compete
      
123

Total: 1

43. 42. If you answered yes for situations that might happen in your citrus enterprise in future, please provide reasons.

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

44. 43. List three most important factors that would ensure that your enterprise attain profitability without damaging the environment.

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

45. 44. List three important factors for ensuring that the citrus production is sustained for ever going into the future.

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1

46. 45. Indicate from which organizations or individuals technical support was received.

 DAFF Extension officers
 (0%)  
 Citrus Growers Association
 (0%)  
 NGO
 (0%)  
 Retailers e.g. Spar
 (100%)  
 ARC researchers
 (0%)  
 Private companies
 (0%)  
 Cooperative
 (0%)  

Total: 1

47. 46. Indicate the year by which technical support was delivered?

 2016
 (0%)  
 2017
 (100%)  
 2018
 (0%)  

Total: 1

48. 47. Indicate the nature of technical support received?

 Accessing the farm
 (0%)  
 Business plan
 (0%)  
 Access to credit
 (0%)  
 Access to markets
 (0%)  
 Training on cultivation
 (0%)  
 Training on book keeping
 (0%)  
 Provision of trees
 (0%)  
 Business plan; Training on cultivation
 (100%)  

Total: 1

49. 48. With regards to your answer for question 45-47, which one among the above mentioned organizations rendered good technical support, and if so how did they contribute?

 test
 (100%)  

Total: 1