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DRAFT QUESTIONNAIRE - The Development of Economic and Sustainability Framework for Citrus Resource-Poor Farmers in South Africa

1. Please indicate your age in complete *

2. Indicate your province *

3. Please indicate your gender *
Kindly indicate your marital status *

How many people are in your household? *

4. Indicate your educational achievements? *

5. Indicate your business experience (in years)? *

6. Indicate your experience in farming in general (in years)? *

7. How long have you been involved in citrus farming (in years)? *

8. May you be kind to tell us the name of your farm? *

9. What is the size of your farm in hectares? *

10. What are your objectives for participating in citrus production? *

11. How was your farm accessed? *

12. What is nearest town from your farm? *

13. What type of soils are found on the farm? *

14. What is the amount of annual rainfall in your area? *

15. Indicate which one/ones among the below listed citrus commodities or species is planted on your farm. *
16. Please write the number of hectares for orange, soft citrus (naartjie), grapefruit and lemon separately in the space below. *

17. Select the names of orange cultivars, currently cultivated on your farm. *

18. How many farm sections do you have on oranges? *

19. Indicate the planting densities only for the orange trees planted in your farm sections. *

20. Indicate the age only for the orange trees planted in your farm sections. *

21. Select the names of the rootstock unto which orange cultivars are grafted or planted. *

22. Do you have an irrigation system on the farm? *
23. What is the source of the water for irrigation? *
24. Did you make profit In the past three years? *
25. In case the answer is no, please provide an explanation? *

26. Indicate the yield/ha in the past three years? *
  15-25 tons 26-40 tons >40 tons
27. Indicate the cost of production/ha in the past three years? *
  R40000-R70000 R71000-R100000 >R100 000
28. Indicate the income in Rand/ha in the past three years? *
  R40000-R60000/ha R61000-R80000/ha >R80000/ha
29. Indicate the profit as percentage of production cost/ha in the past three years? *
  5-10% 11-20% >20%
30. Using your own experience, rate important factors contributing most to capital cost. *
  Not important Important Extremely important
1. Land contributes most? 
2. Establishing irrigation system? 
3. Buying fertilizer and chemicals? 
4. Farm-labour contribute most? 
5. Irrigation contributes most? 
6. Tractors and implements? 
7. Interest charged on loans? 
8. Electricity and fuel 
9. Marketing cost 
10. HR & Administration 
11. Other factors 
31. Evaluate on scale of 1-7 the factors that are important towards achieving high yields. *
  Not important Important Extrememly important
1. Selection of high yielding cultivar? 
2. Selection of a suitable rootstock? 
3. Good planting density? 
4. Fertilizer Application? 
5. Constant irrigation of citrus trees? 
6. Practice of Conservation Agriculture? 
7. Replacing of old trees? 
8. Other factors 
32. Rate the importance of the following factors in terms of building social capital and transfer of skills to farmer *
  Not important Important Extremely important
1. Constant visits by public extension officers? 
2. Constant visits by private-sector extension officers? 
3. Being a member of a farmer-association or a commodity group? 
4. Belonging to share-equity scheme? 
5. Access to cellphone and internet? 
6. Receiving training on business management and book-keeping? 
7. Being connected to government officials or politicians? 
8. Other factors 
33. Indicate how much each of the markets receive for your produce? *
  0-30% 31-60% 61-100%
Local National Fresh Produce markets 
Export markets 
Retail supermarkets (e.g. Spar) 
Juice processing firms 
Informal markets 
34. Rate the importance of the following factors on their contribution towards profitability. *
  Not important Important Extremely important
1. Employing few labourers per ha? 
2. Buying farm inputs in large quantities and getting a discount? 
3. Adopting high-yielding citrus trees? 
4. Selling produce at a premium price? 
5. Selling to export markets? 
7. Supplying citrus during out-of-season 
8. Using less electricity & less fuel? 
9. Renting a farm and not buying one? 
10. Other factors 
35. Had you ever heard about the concept of sustainable agricultural practices? *
36. Please explain to us your understanding of the concept of sustainable agricultural practices? *

37. Select the status of sustainable practices on your farm. *
  At all times Sometimes Never
1. To sustain soil fertility I use compost as fertilizer? 
2. In order to attain high yields I apply industrial fertilizer? 
3. In order to control insects I apply insecticides? 
4. To control insects I use natural agents or natural enemies? 
5. In order to retain soil moisture I apply mulching 
6. In order to control diseases I apply fungicide 
7. In order to enhance soil fertility I do intercropping 
8. To save cost I use more machinery and less labour 
9. For effective irrigation I use sprinkler and flood irrigation 
10. To ensure water-use-efficiency I use drip irrigation 
11. To save on electricity I use solar energy and gas 
12. To save the cost of diesel I use ethanol and/or biodiesel 
38. Select which one of the below listed attributes, since you’ve started farming, have increased, decreased or remained the same. *
  Increased Decreased Remained the same
No of Labour per ha 
Income per ha 
No. of ha under citrus 
Volumes of exports 
Farm owners 
Savings in the bank 
Land under irrigation 
Fruit/tree diseases 
39. Where the attribute had remained the same or decreased please provide reasons. *

41. Indicate if you are worried that in the next 20 years, the below situations might happen in your citrus enterprise. *
  Yes Possible No
1. Levels of yield might decrease 
2. No longer have enough irrigation water 
3. No longer be able to secure more suitable land for citrus 
4. Citrus diseases might cause the business to collapse 
5. Too much fertilizer may damage soil fertility 
6. Too much application of insecticides might kill important living organisms 
7. Not able to secure good quality trees or cultivars 
8. No one to take over if you pass-on 
9. Too high levels of debt 
10. No longer realize profit 
11. Cannot afford to hire more labour anymore 
12. That oligopolistic behavior of big citrus firms might render your business not able to compete 
42. If you answered yes for situations that might happen in your citrus enterprise in future, please provide reasons. *

43. List three most important factors that would ensure that your enterprise attain profitability without damaging the environment. *

44. List three important factors for ensuring that the citrus production is sustained for ever going into the future. *

45. Indicate from which organizations or individuals technical support was received. *
46. Indicate the year by which technical support was delivered? *
47. Indicate the nature of technical support received? *